The torus on the other hand provides infinite scroll, which would make chase scenes more entertaining. I want to write like you when I grow up, but that would require a time machine or wormhole or something. Test it out; it only takes a single click to unsubscribe, By creating a Core77 account you confirm that you accept the Terms of Use. Three concepts that came out of this study are referred to as: the Bernal sphere, Stanford torus, and O'Neill cylinder. Based on the idea of a ring-shaped rotating space station originally put forward by Werner Von Braun[1], the Torus was designed in 1975 by O’Neill to be a small, feasible settlement in space as part of a summer research project that would go on to become the basis of a paper on space colonization. We have six dogs. The. In 1869, Edward Everett Hale wrote and published “The Brick Moon”, a story about a satellite made of bricks which are sent into space. Searching 'torus etymology' yielded: For the record, I thought it was something like bagel as well. The colonies would reside in the Lagrangian point called L5. The ring is connected to a hub via a number of "spokes", which serve as conduits for people and materials travelling to and from the hub. This summer project produced Space Settlements: A Design Study, and three super futuristic concepts for off-world living: the Stanford Torus, Island One, and the O’Neill Cylinder. Don't forget the Dyson Sphere (don't get excited, it's not the vacuum). Is this the end-game for when our population exceeds what the planet can support and we run out of arable land? An O'Neill cylinder is an orbiting space colony composed of two large cylinders which rotate in opposite directions to replicate the effects of Earth's gravity. At this low speed, no one would experience motion sickness. This third concept, proposed as part of the same study, is a sort of combination of the two that takes the cylinder and bends it into a circle. Kalpana One is intended to improve on the space settlement designs of the mid-1970s: the Bernal Sphere, Stanford Torus, and O’Neill Cylinders, as well as on Lewis One, designed at NASA Ames Research Center in the early 1990s. It rotates, providing an artificial gravity equivalent to 99.2% of Earth's gravity by way of. The original proposal for this type of colony was made in the Information age at Stanford University in the USA. The theoretical surface area would be up to 120 times more than what we've got on Earth. Dyson Sphere (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Industrial Designer Packaging Development, Tenure Track Faculty, Industrial Design (ID) Program. Is it for an elite class of people that can afford to live in a space city? Asteroid mining is an alternative source of materials.[10]. Niven's ringworld is a ribbon that circles a star with a land surface equivalent to millions of Earths. The Bernal Sphere was round, the O'Neill Cylinders cylindrical. The most boring thing in this life is reading cutting edge ideas and then growing old watching the usual, "It will never work" (Until we get the monopoly. [8], The interior space of the torus itself is used as living space, and is large enough that a "natural" environment can be simulated; the torus appears similar to a long, narrow, straight glacial valley whose ends curve upward and eventually meet overhead to form a complete circle. This was one of the earliest depictions of space travel and a space colony. While nothing like an Orbital will ever be constructed in our lifetime, Banks' fictional creations did inspire a real-life object that many of you may own: A little video game called Halo. The configuration consists of a pair of cylinders, each 20 miles long and 4 miles in diameter. The Bernal Sphere was round, the O'Neill Cylinders cylindrical. You don't build vast, open habitats with low population density unless it's either so cheap that you can afford to do it to fit personal whims, or you really need to create off-world animal/plant reserves. It consists of a torus, or doughnut-shaped ring, with a central "hub" in the middle. Colin Kapp’s 1982 ‘Cageworld’ quadrilogy scales this up even more with concentric Dyson spheres the diametre of the orbit of each planet in our solar system. An administrator introduces him to the world that Murph helped create. It's strange to think that a sci-fi author's imagination unwittingly helped propel the Xbox console to success. Actual ring shaped colonies (known as the "Stanford Torus" or "Island 2" model) are only common in the Gundam Wing continuity, though one also shows up in Gundam Unicorn , which was apparently the first ever built in the UC-verse and promptly got blown up . It would have held 10,000 people in a one-mile long donut-shaped ring. Why would we choose to live in a space habitat? Upon meeting his elderly daughter, she tells him she always knew h… The concepts of space colonies has always been intriguing. Could we build a Bernal Sphere, an O’Neill Cylinder or a Stanford Torus? I’m a lapsed industrial designer. #1 Bernal Sphere vs O'Neill Cylinder vs Stanford Torus Tyzuris Coronati. The population density is similar to a dense suburb, with part of the ring dedicated to agriculture and part to housing. Also the torus is rotationally stable, whereas the cylinder is rotating around the short axis and you have to be extremely careful about balancing the weight inside so it doesn't go tumbling Only if you design it the way O'Neill did - if you read Al Globus's papers on the subject he lays out an alternative design for a cylinder that is stable. One is intended to improve on the space settlement designs of the mid-1970s: the Bernal Sphere, Stanford Torus, and O’Neill Cylinders, as well as on Lewis One, designed at NASA Ames Research Center in the early 1990s. Maybe I should read more Asmiov, also I've been meaning to watch Elysium. Great article, but never guess when the facts are just a google away. NASA Study, pg 1, "The Overall System", pg 60, Summary, Gerard K. O'Neil, "The High Frontier", William Morrow & Co., 1977, p149, Von Braun, W.:Crossing the Final Frontier, Colliers, March 22, 1952, Hermann Potočnik: The Problem of Space Travel (1929), Space Colonization: Report on Stanford Torus Stations – NASA Ames circa 1975, Visualisation of stanford torus construction from an asteroid mining facility in 2010, Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stanford_torus&oldid=975581613, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Total mass: 10 million tons (including radiation shield (95%), habitat, and atmosphere), Spokes: 6 spokes of 15 m (49 ft) diameter, Radiation shield: 1.7 meters (5.6 feet) thick raw, This page was last edited on 29 August 2020, at 09:11. A NASA lunar base concept with a mass driver (the long structure that extends toward the horizon). [2], The Stanford torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of exploring and speculating on designs for future space colonies[3] (Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal sphere as an alternative to the torus[4]). An additional benefit versus the O'Neill Cylinders is that with the latter, there is a feeling of finite space; jogging along it, you would eventually reach the end and have to turn around. The Torus would have paired an overhead mirror with mirrors on the colony’s inner ring to pull sunlight into the inhabited outer ring. Join Richard and Peter in their discussion with Dr. Ronke Olabisi and Jerry Stone. A Stanford Torus would be about 60 times smaller than an O’Neill cylinder, and it’s much, much smaller than a Dyson Sphere. A mass catcher at L2 would collect the materials, transporting them to L5 where they could be processed in an industrial facility to construct the torus. Not that I'd get to see in my life time ( still tinkering with cryogenics in the basement),  being a part of one of these colonies makes me wonder where we'd collect the shear amount of resources to build such structures. [2]The Stanford Torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of speculating on designs for future space colonies. You left at Ringworld (tho' you mention Halo). (Photo Credit: Don Davis/NASA) The O'Neill Cylinder. The Stanford torus is a proposed NASA design[1] for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents. Several of the designs were able to provide volumes large enough to be suitable for human habitation. A Stanford Torus is a proposed design for a space habitat that is capable of housing 10,000 permanant residents. To build a Stanford Torus, we’d need to mine the Moon a little. Several of the designs were able to provide volumes large enough to be suitable for human habitation. Sunlight is provided to the interior of the torus by a system of mirrors, including a large non-rotating primary solar mirror. The O'Neill Cylinder is much larger but being cylindrical, the weight is supported by tension in two directions increasing the mass needed. Core77 is supported by its audience. All these "Named"  ideas were proposed and fully discussed in the 1960s by science fiction writers of repute who's theories are only now being proven to be true. A torus expanding from interconnected bolas or dumbbells. Transportation system for the torus construction (1975). The Late Iain M Banks’ Culture novels are terrific but his orbitals are scaled down versions of the massive habitat featured in Larry Niven’s 1970 ‘Ringworld’. Because each cylinder has such a large radius, the colony rotates only 40 times per hour. That game and its sequels have netted $3.4 billion in sales since 2001. Our website uses cookies to enhance the site operation and understand traffic and website performance. ), then the little press releases and suddenly, 25yrs later; Baboom! Here's a fly-through of what a Stanford Torus might look like: Design god Syd Mead famously produced renderings of a Stanford Torus in his concept work for the space habitat in the 2013 sci-fi film "Elysium.". When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. "Stanford torus" refers only to this particular version of the design, as the concept of a ring-shaped rotating space … I've always wondered about the theoretical purpose of these things, even with massive technological advances in energy and propulsion (like cold fusion) even the smaller-scale versions of these things approaching the size of a city would be so astronomically expensive to build. From the Larry Niven wikia: Great series Mr. Noe and from one writer to another I gotta say that I love your writing style. It is very nice to see the full-up Stanford Torus-derived habitat in "Elysium" rendered with all the craft, skill and computer graphic muscle that a Hollywood budget confers. Proposed at the 1975 Summer Study at Stanford University, the Stanford torus is one take on the popular ring-shaped (or toroidal) space station, envisaged to … The colonies rotate to provide artificial gravity on the inner surface. In Banks' fictional world, these Orbitals are tilted towards a nearby star, and thus their rotation not only provides gravity, but a proper day/night cycle. Held 10,000 people in a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents summer.! The main body of which is about 5 miles wide and 20 miles long most of... September 1974 article of Physics Today Neill cylinder or a Stanford torus the designs were able to provide gravity... 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